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History... Part 3

BRONZE AGE (2000 to 1000 BC)
20th c. BC   Murals in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan, depicting wrestling techniques.
18th c. BC   The Babylonian Gilgamesh epic describes includes the major hand-held weapons (sword, axe, bow and spear) used prior to the gunpowder era.
IRON AGE (1000 BC to 500AD)
8th c. BC   Roughly the start of Greek Olympic Competition. Through the popularity of the Olympics, martial arts like boxing, wrestling, and pankration flourished.
8th c. BC   Homer's Iliad describes many scenes of hand-to-hand combat in detail.
800 BC   Boxing in China can be traced back reliably to the Chou dynasty.
700 BC   Wrestling in China.
6th c. BC   Sun Tzu writes The Art of War, one of the seminal works in military strategy and tactics, during the Warring States period of Chinese history.
300 B.C.   Foundation of Taoism, which later influences Chinese internal or soft styles such as Hsing-i and Tai Chi, which involve the cultivation of chi and the study of nature and animal movements.
264 BC   First recorded Gladiatorial combat staged in Rome by Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus
50 B.C   Earliest records of Korean indigenous martial arts called Taekkyon found in paintings in the Muyong-chong, a royal tomb from the Koguryo dynasty.
23 BC   First Sumo match took place in front of Emperor Suinin of Japan.
72 AD   The Colosseum opens in Rome, providing the public with the world's largest martial arts venue for over the next three hundred years.
2nd century   A Greek papyrus manuscript on wrestling, is written. It is the earliest known European martial arts manual.
477 AD   The first abbot of Shaolin was Batuo, an Indian dhyana master who came to China in AD 464 to spread Buddhist teachings.
220   Hua To ("five animals play" - tiger, deer, monkey, bear and bird) was developed.
470   Bodhidarma was born as the Prince of Kanchipura in the south of India.
MIDDLE AGES (500 to 1500)
500   The primary Shaolin Temple is built at the western base of the Chinese Song Shan mountain range, at the orders of Emperor Hsiao-wen. Successive Chinese emperors authorize fighting monks to train in the Temple. Other Shaolin temples are built in China thereafter.
516   The Shaolin temple was built.
527   Bodhidarma arrived at the Shaolin temple.
547   The first reference to Bodhidarma was written in "The History of the temples Lo-Yang", by Yang Hsuan-Chih.
550   Indian monk Bodhidarma (called Dharuma in Japan) founds Zen Buddhism and contributes Maipayat to Shaolin temple boxing. His philosophy includes static meditation and related breathing techniques, and includes the martial virtues of discipline, humility, restraint, and respect for life.
630   Hindu temple artwork in India depicts unarmed combat techniques.
670   Shaolin monks save the emperor of China.
672   The Chronicle of Japan" ("Nihongi" in Japanese) was written, and the word "bugei" was used for the first time.
728   Date of the "combat stele" at the Shaolin Monastery
780   Butokukai was founded by Emperor Kamu.
782   Japanese Heian period begins. Curved swords called Tachi (large sword) appear. Although samurai did not technically appear until the 12th century, in appearance these are the early curved swords commonly recognized as "samurai swords."
1100-1300   Shaolin heroic period.
1156–1185   Japanese Samurai class emerges during the warring period between the Taira and Minamoto families. The warriors code of Bushido also emerges during this time.
1274   The first Mongolian attempt on invasion of Japan was stopped by the samurai.
1281   The second Mongolian army (150,000 men) was destroyed by the typhoon "Kamikaze" after 49 days of battle.
1300's   Chuan'fa reached its zenith during the Ming dynasty.
    Malla Purana (Gujarat) ca. 1300 – MS I.33, the oldest extant martial arts manual detailing armed combat.
1338   Japanese Ashikaga period, during which Samurai caste expands its influence further. Many schools of swordsmanship flourish. The period ends around 1500.
1372   Okinawa and King Satto officially established a dialogue with Emperor Ming of China. Trade between the realms begun, and Chuan`fa introduced on Okinawa.
1393   Chinese officials were assigned to Okinawa, several of these were experts in Chuan'fa.
1400   China sends delegations to Okinawa, which then begins trading extensively with China and Japan. The indigenous Okinawan unarmed combat art called “Te” is likely influenced by Chinese and Japanese arts over the next three centuries, forming the basis for the modern art of Karate.
1400's   Pai Ho chuan (white crane Gung Fu) is developed in Tibet.
1447   Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-Ryu was founded in Japan. Today's oldest existing martial arts school.
1477   The Okinawan king Sho Shin, influenced by the Japanese, bans the carrying of arms. Similar bans occurred in Japan in 1586. Both apparently led to the underground development of striking arts and may have encouraged unarmed combat techniques designed for use against armored soldiers, such as Jujutsu.
EARLY MODERN PERIOD (1500 to 1800)
1542   The Portuguese introduced firearms in Japan reducing the status of skill in unarmed battle.
1549   Hayashizaki Minamoto is born and later founds the art of Iajutsu or Iaido, the art of drawing and cutting with the sword in a single motion. Successive masters of his school can be traced to the present day
1600's   Dragon style chuan'fa (T'ang Lang chuan'fa - praying mantis) was developed in the shaolin temples.
1600   A newer style samurai sword, called a katana or daito, is widely used.
1609   The Satsuma clan invaded the Ryukyu islands and Okinawa. They again forbade weapons among the civilians.
1643   Legendary Japanese swordsman Miyamoto Musashi is believed to have written The Book of Five Rings, a seminal work regarding the art and philosophy of the samurai and swordsmanship.
1674   Chinese Emperor K'ang Hsi's army burns the Shaolin Temple at Song Shan, perhaps due to concerns around the capabilities of its fighting force. The temple is rebuilt, but this event disrupts 1,100 years of concentrated training in that facility. Many of the surviving monks are believed to have moved to other temples, spreading Shaolin boxing further.
1700's   Hsing-I (mind form), wu shu style, developed in the Shaolin-temple at Wu-Tang mountain.
    Development of Wing Chun Kung Fu
    Chinese temple frescoes depict Shaolin Temple monks practicing unarmed combat. Okinawan Te and Chinese Shaolin boxing styles mix as part of trade between the countries.
1743   Jack Broughton, an English bare-knuckle fighter, writes the first rules of boxing, later to become the London Prize Ring rules in 1838.
1750   First shinai was constructed by Chuzo Nakanishi.
    Techniques of the Chinese martial art Tai Chi are written down.
1776   Wing Chun Gung Fu was founded.
19TH CENTURY
1800's   Pa Kua chuan'fa (eight trigram palm fist way) was founded.
1830's   Choy Li Fut Gung Fu was founded.
1842   Huo chuan chuan'fa (monkey style Gung Fu) was developed.
1851   Kanryo Higaonna, founder of Naha-te, is born March 10th
1866 (1868)   Kanryo Higaonna sails to Fukien province, where he studies Chinese martial arts with Ryu Ryuko.
1867   John Graham Chambers publishes a revised set of rules for boxing. They are publicly endorsed by John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, leading the rules to become known as the "Marquess of Queensberry rules".
1868   End of the samurai clans, and Gichin Funakoshi was born.
1882   Jigoro Kano founded Kodokan Judo and opened the first dojo at the Eiso-Ji temple. One of his training methods, called randori, removed more dangerous striking techniques to emphasize grappling and submission locks between students practising at full-force. His students taught Judo using randori around the world during the early 20th century.
1883   Morihei Ueshiba was born, the founder of Aikido. T Tsunejiro and Shiro were given shodan by Kano sensei.
1888   Chogun Miyagi, founder of Goju Ryu, is born on April 25th.
1890   Kanryo Higaonna introduces Naha-te and a breathing exercise called Sanchin.
    Sumo, Kendo and Judo became part of the curriculum in the Japanese school system for boys (naginata-do for girls).
1892   The first world heavyweight boxing championship is fought under the Marquess of Queensberry rules of 1867, which are similar to those used today. Jim Corbett defeats John L. Sullivan.
1893   Hironori Ohtsuka, founder of Wado-ryu karate, was born.
1893-1901   Edward William Barton-Wright studies Jujutsu in Japan and created Bartitsu upon returning to England, one of the earliest introductions of Japanese martial arts in the West and the first known martial art to combine Asian and European fighting styles.
1895   Dai Nippon Butokukai was reestablished.
1899   Kenwa Mabuni was born, founder of shito-ryu karate.
20TH CENTURY
1900   British and American soldiers in Japan begin learning techniques from the Japanese Army.
1902   Chogun Miyagi begins his training with Kanyro Higaonna
1902   Karate became a part of the curriculum for Okinawan schools.
1906   First official demonstration of karate on Okinawa.
1907   Jigoro Kano designed the gi model which is used today.
1908   Chojun Miyagi enters the Armyand served in the Fifth Division of Kumamoto for three years.
1908   Amateur boxing becomes an Olympic Sport.
1909 - January 21   The founder, Gogen Yamaguchi was born in Kagoshima Pref.
1915   Kanryo Higaonna dies on December 23rd. Chojun Miyagi travels to Foochow province in China and trains in several local styles including Chugoku Kempo.
1917   Chojun Miyagi returns to Okinawa and becomes an instructor at the Okinawa Ken Police Training Center, Naha City Commercial School, Okinawa Normal School, and the Prefectural Health Center.
1917   Funakoshi sensei gave the first demonstration of karate in Japan. The demonstration was not very successful in gaining interest for the art.
1920 - 1925   Mitsuyo Maeda, a student of Jigoro Kano's, travels to Brazil (among other places) to spread Judo and Jiu-Jitsu teachings. He also participates in several challenge matches. In 1925, Carlos Gracie, a student of Mitsuyo Maeda, opens his school, the first for Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. The art is further refined by the Gracie family thereafter, particularly by Carlos' brother Helio Gracie.
1921   Miyagi gives a Naha-Te demonstration to Crown Prince in Nakagusuku Bay, Okinawa.
1922   Funakoshi sensei's second demonstration became a success and he founded the first dojo in Tokyo.
1923   Masatatsu Oyama, founder of kyokushinkai karate, was born in Korea under the name Choi Young Li.
1925   Ueshiba sensei demonstrated, for the first time, his own version of Aiki-Jutsu.
1927-28   Chojun Miyagi founds Goju-Ryu karate, also becoming the first to give his style a name other than that of the city from which it is produced.
1928   Chojun Miyagi travels to Japan (for the first time) and teaches karate at Kansai, Kyoto, and Ritsumeikan universities
1928   Shaolin temple records are burned, destroying many documents and records of earlier martial arts.
1929   Gogen Yamaguchi entered Ritsumeikan University, majoring law studies. He organized Karate studies club.
1929   Miyagi becomes an instructor at the Prefectural Police Dojo and later at Naha Courthouse, Prefectural Physical Culture Association, and the Prefectural Teachers' Training College. It was around this time that it became necessary to name the system that was growing in popularity throughout Okinawa and Japan. Goju-ryu karate was founded.
1930   Gogen Yamaguchi establishes Japanese Goju-Ryu headquarters in Tokyo. Chojun Miyagi is named Karate Division Chairman of the Okinawan Prefecture Athletic Association. Miyagi performs at the Dai Nippon Butokukai (Greater Japan Martial Arts Association, the official governing body for Japanese martial arts)
1932   Miyagi performs at the Sainei Budo Temple
1934   Chogun Miyagi lectures and teaches karate in Hawaii. He also becomes a permanent officer of the Dai Nippon Butokukai (Great Japan Martial Virtues Association).
1935   All Japan Goju-Kai Karate-Do Association is founded by Gogen Yamaguchi, who also originates jiyu-kumite (free sparring), the basis of sport karate. Gosei Yamaguchi is born.
1935   Yoshioki Yamashita achieved 10th dan in Judo from Kano sensei.
1935   “Karate” becomes official name of the Okinawan martial arts, based on the traditional art of “Te” (hand) and the term “Kara” (empty or unarmed).
1936   Gichin Funakoshi publishes the first edition of his book "Karate-Do Kyohan," documenting much of the philosophy and traditional katas (forms) of modern Karate. A second edition was published in 1973, many years after his death in 1957.
1936   Miyagi calls for martial arts unity and expressed the opinion that karate instruction should be made available to the rest of the world during a lecture in Japan's Sakaisuji Meiji Syoten Hall.
1936   Miyagi received a medal for excellence in the martial arts from the Japanese Ministry of Education, and also became the first person in karate to be granted the kyoshi title from the Dai Nippon Butokukai.
1936   In October of the same year, Miyagi attended a conference that adopted "karate" as official name of the martial art of Okinawa.
1936   The karate masters of Okinawa decide Karate will be the official name of Okinawa-te, and the first independent karate dojo is founded in Tokyo. It was named Shotokan by the students of Funakoshi sensei.
1937   Chogun Miyagi, along with other stylists, forms the Dai Nippon Butokukai Karate Jukkyoshi (great Japan Martial Arts Karate Teachers Association), under direction of Prince Moriwasa Nashimoto, commissioner of the Dai Nippon Butokukai. He also receives a Kyoshi Title from the Dai Nippon Butokukai.
1937   Shito-Ryu karate founded.
1938   Sambo presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev; Nguyễn Lộc introduced Vovinam to the public.
1939   Wado-Ryu karate founded.
1939   Gogen Yamaguchi is sent to Manchuria as an intelligence officer, where he is captured and held by the Russians.
1940   Chojun Miyagi creates the katas: Gekisai Dai Ichi and Gekisai Dai Ni
1940   Uechi-Ryu karate founded.
1942   Morihei Ueshiba begins using the term Aikido to describe his art, which is related to aiki-jujutsu. He is credited as the father of Aikido.
1942   September 28 - The present president Goshi Yamaguchi was born in Shinkyo, Manchuria.
1943   Judo, Karate, and Kung Fu are officially introduced in Korea, likely beginning to mix with the indigenous Korean arts.
1945   First Korean dojang, or martial arts school, opens in Seoul, Korea. Many other schools follow. Korean military personnel receive training in martial arts.
1945   World War II ends, with many more American and British soldiers stationed in Asia exposed to the martial arts.
1947   Gogen Yamaguchi is freed by the Russians and returns to Japan.
1949   Gogen Yamaguchi opened Dojo in Nihonzutsumi, Asakusa, Taito ward.
1950   By Gogen Yamaguchi's proposal, All Japan Karate-do Goju-kai was united. Asakusa Senzoku dojo was opened.
1953   October 8th - Chojun Miyagi dies.
1954   Bruce Lee begins his studies of Wing Chun Gung Fu under Master Yip Man.
1956   Kyokushinkai karate founded by Masatatsu Oyama
1956   Shimabuku holds a meeting with his students and proclaims his new system as “Isshinryu.”
1957   Funakoshi sensei dies.
1957   Taekwondo becomes the official name of the Korean martial arts.
1959   Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA) is formed.
1959   Peter Urban introduces Goju- Ryu to the United States.
1960   Peter Urban opens the famous Chinatown Dojo.
1961   Gosen Yamaguchi went to the United States to enter a university and He opened a dojo in San Francisco
1963   Goshi Yamaguchi begins teaching Goju-Ryu in San Francisco.
1964   Gosei Yamaguchi joins his brother Goshi in San Francisco.
1964   Kyokushin Kaikan organization, founded in by Masutatsu Oyama.
1965   Goshi, the third child went to the United States.
1965   International Karate-do Goju-Kai Association was formed and united. Gogen Yamaguchi helps form the All Japan Karate-Do Federation.
1966   International Taekwondo Federation (ITF) is formed.
1967   Jeet Kune Do Gung Fu founded by Bruce Lee.
1972   Judo becomes an official Olympic sport.
1973   The Suginami Goju-kan head dojo was opened.
1973   The Bruce Lee film "Enter the Dragon" brings Asian martial arts to the United States domestic audience. He dies that same year.
1973   World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) is formed.
1975   Bruce Lee's book "Tao of Jeet Kune Do" is published post-mortem. He credits the influence of western boxing and fencing in developing his art, among others.
1978   The Chojun Miyagi Sensei's 20th memorial, JKGA Delegation visits his grave in Okinawa.
1980   Ashihara kaikan a style of stand-up, full contact karate, founded in by Hideyuki Ashihara. Often referred to as "fighting karate" by its practitioners.
1983   The Goju-ryu founder, Chojun Miyagi Sensei's 30th Kensho Memorial International Friendly Match was held.
1988   WTF-style Taekwondo becomes an Olympic demonstration sport, later becoming a full-medal sport in 2000.
1989 May, 20   Gogen Yamaguchi passed away of acute cardiac arrest.
1989 Sept. 26   All Japan Karate-do Goju-kai Association funeral was held at Meiji Kaikan, in Minato ward.
1990   Goshi Yamaguchi became the president of All Japan Karate-do Goju-kai Association and of International Karate-do Goju-Kai Association.
1990 Nov. 21- 23   Chojun Miyagi Sensei & Gogen Yamaguchi Kensho The 1st Karate-do Goju-kai world Tourbament was held at Chiba Port Arena.
1993   The first Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) is held. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioner Royce Gracie wins the event.
1995 Nov, 24-25   The 1st Karate-do Goju-kai Asian Pacific Tournament was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
1996 Dec, 28-29   The 2nd Karate-do Goju-kai Asian Pacific Tournament was held in Pune, India.
1997 Nov, 29-30   The 2nd Karate-do Goju-kai World Tournament was held in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
1998   Chojun Miyagi Sensei's 45th memorial, visiting his grave in Okinawa.
1999 - Nov, 20-21   The 3rd Karate-do Goju-kai Asian Pacific Tournament was held in Perth, Australia
21ST CENTURY
2001 - Nov. 30 - Dec 2   The 3rd Karate-do Goju-kai World Tournament was held in Perth, Australia
2005 - Nov. 9-14   The 4th Karate-do Goju-kai World Tournament was held in Rotterdam, Netherlands.
2007 - Nov. 17-19   The 4th Karate-do Goju-kai Asian Pacific Tournament was held in Hong Kong, China
2007   Zuffa, LLC the parent company that owns the Ultimate Fighting Championship (a mixed martial arts promotion) purchased PRIDE Fighting Championships from Dream Stage Entertainment.
2009 Sept. 20   100th Commemoration of the birth of Kaiso Gogen Yamaguchi, will take place in Tokyo, Japan
2009 Oct. 23-26   5th Karate-do Goju-kai World Tournament will be held in Cape Town South Africa
2013 Dec   6th Karate-do Goju-kai World Tournament will be held in India